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DESIGN

DESIGN OF SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS

Bursting Method

 

Replenishment of Pipes and Hydraulic Networks Through the Exploitation Method

Technology without Ditch is the term used to define the applied engineering to place the pipeline in its line, almost without opening trench and it includes a series of diverse methods and technologies to rehabilitate and install diverse old pipes and lines; this engineering offers us a new way of working in obsolete lines that transport different fluids. The rehabilitation of pipes by exploding methodology is the adequate engineering to renew lines without opening trench, only some accesses, in addition that offers unparalleled benefits such as:

 

open only 5% of the ditch

 

the cost is less than open trench

 

It is quick to install

 

The material used as HDPE is resistant and its useful life is guaranteed for 50 years or more

 

 

 

In countries where proper maintenance is not given and where their old lines are left to reach 100% of their useful life, they are highly recommendable since they can be installed even with a good degree of sediment and with collapsed pipes.

The method in summary consists of a bullet-shaped tool of the diameter of the pipe to be renewed and which is attached to the new line at one end and to a cable on the other and passes through the tube to be replaced; using a winch, this tool is pulled which breaks the previous tube (it "explodes") while the TKP tube occupies the space to cover the length between access and access.

 

 

 

The liquid conduction capacity of this pipeline is higher than that of the same diameter of concrete, asbestos cement or mud, that is to say, with the same diameter of rehabilitation, there is 15% more conduction capacity. The load and voltage resistance is much higher than the other pipes, it is more flexible and can be used almost in all needs, such as drinking water, drainage, gas, rainwater, etc., For this the rehabilitation with pipelines High density polyethylene by the bursting method becomes the first method for rehabilitation of obsolete lines, with hydraulic engineering without trench.

 

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

DESIGN OF SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS

Directional Drilling Method

 

Installation of Pipes and Hydraulic Networks Using the Directional Drilling Method

The Horizontal Directional Drilling Industry has experienced so much growth in the last two decades that it has become a common method of installation. This growth has been driven by the fact that the impact on those affected by public services is less:

 

  • as the elimination of traffic disruption​

  • the minimum damage area​

  • the costs are lower

 

 

 

Some of the earliest uses of directional drilling is river crossing. Since it offers minimal environmental damage and there is no interruption of river traffic.

The knowledge of the drilling process begins with a small horizontal hole (pilot hole) under the crossing obstacle (for example, a road) with a continuous chain of the steel drill rod. The head of the rod emerges on the opposite side of the traverse, a special cutter, called a reamer, is attached by the pilot hole. The reamer corrodes the pilot hole, so you can pull the tube through the hole. The tube is usually pulled through the side of the crossover in front of the drilling platform being pulled up to the platform, it really is a very fast process.

 

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

DESIGN OF SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS

Slip Linning method

 

Installation of Pipelines and Hydraulic Networks Using the Slip Linning Method

The effects of the continuous deterioration of a gas pipeline could be quite drastic and expensive. A drainage system by ruinous gravity allows the infiltration of substances from groundwater, which increases the volume of flow and reduces the available hydraulic capacity of the existing line. So the old pipeline often increases treatment and transportation costs for the intended flow stream and continuous exfiltration can also erode the soil surrounding the pipe structure and eventually cause soil subsidence.

 

 

 

The case of positive pressure pipes is somewhat different, but the results are equally unacceptable. In this situation, leaks through the existing pipeline allow the exfiltration of the contents of the flow stream that eventually lead to property damage or contamination of water resources. In addition, in many cases, the content of the flow stream is sufficiently valuable that its loss through exfiltration becomes another economic factor. The HDPE tube provides an excellent solution to the problem. This is because the standard PE pipe joining method uses a heat fusion process that results in a monolithic pipe system, meaning the joints are as strong as the pipe itself, and leak-free.

 

 

 

When the harmful results of pipeline deterioration become evident, we must find the most economical method that will restore the original function or leave the damaged system. The excavation and replacement of the damaged structure can be prohibitively expensive and also interrupt the service for which the original line is repaired. An alternative method for restoration is "jacketed" or "insert renewal" with polyethylene tubing. More than 30 years of field experience shows that this is a proven means of profitability that provides a new pipe structure with minimal service interruption, surface traffic, or property damage that would be caused by extensive excavation.

The method involves entering the damaged line at strategic points within the system and then inserting sections of polyethylene pipe, such as a continuous pipe, along the existing pipe structure. This technique has been used to rehabilitate gravity drains, sanitary pipelines, water pipes, drainage lines, gas conduction lines, road drains and storm drains, and other pipeline structures with very satisfactory results.

 

 

 

The mechanical connections are used to connect PE pipe systems to each other and to connect the PE pipe systems to other materials and pipe systems.

 

 

 

Select a line pipe diameter to reach a maximum flow capacity, choosing the largest possible diameter for the lining of the pipe. This is limited by the size and condition of the original pipe through which it is inserted. Sufficient distance will be required during the sliding coating process to ensure smooth insertion, taking into account the grade and direction, the replacement of connections and the structural integrity of the existing pipe system.

 

 

 

The selection of a polyethylene liner having an outer diameter 10% smaller than the inner diameter of the pipe to be rehabilitated will generally serve two purposes. First, this size differential usually provides adequate space to accommodate the insertion process. Second, 75% to 100% or more of the original flow capacity can be maintained. A differential of less than 10% can provide adequate clearance in larger diameter pipe structures. It is quite common to select a differential of 5% to 10% for pipe systems with diameters greater than 24 inches, assuming that the conditions of the existing pipe structure allow the insertion of the new pipe.

 

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

DESIGN OF SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS

Installation of Marine Hydraulic Pipes

 

Installation of Marine Pipelines and Hydraulic Networks

Polyethylene (PE) pipes have been increasingly used for various marine applications such as emitters of fluvial and lacustrine effluents, water body crossings and in fresh and salt water intakes. Immunity to galvanic corrosion is an important reason for the selection of HDPE. The combination of air and water, but in particular seawater, can be very corrosive to ordinary metal pipe materials. But other beneficial features, as follows, combine to make PE pipes especially suitable for marine applications:

 

 

 

Light weight - For a given pipe diameter and equivalent performance requirements, the weight of the PE pipe is about one tenth of the weight of the concrete pipe and less than half that of the cast iron. PE handling requires a minimum of heavy equipment, for installation.

 

 

 

Fleet - because the PE density is about 96% of freshwater, and about 94% of that of seawater, the PE pipeline floats EVEN WHEN it is full of water. Long lengths can be mounted on the coast and carried floating to the end of the line.

 

 

 

Thermofused connections - Through the butt fusion method, continuous lengths of PE pipe can be easily assembled without the need for mechanical adjustments. The resulting heat fusion joints are as strong as the pipe, and they eliminate the risk of joints leaking.

 

 

 

Flexibility - The flexibility of the PE pipe allows it to sink slowly and adapt to the natural topography of the bottom surfaces. This results in a more simplified procedure to sink it, and also means that the pipe can normally be placed directly on the natural bottom without any ditch digging or other form of continuous level support preparation.

 

 

 

Ductility - Due to its relatively high capacity to withstand stress, PE pipes can safely adjust to the external variable forces generated by waves and hangovers. Its high deformation capacity also allows the PE pipe to change or bend to accommodate the bottom.

Conventional, non-flexible materials such as concrete or iron pipe can only afford relatively small deformations before risking leaks in, or structural failure of the connections. As the exact magnitude of the maximum forces that can act in rigid pipes is difficult to predict, facilities that use pipes that only allow relatively small deformation in the joints, or limited bending deformation in the pipe, requires a large "safety factor" , such as a relatively heavy load to stabilize the tube against movement, or the opening of ditches in the pipeline in the sediments of the seabed in order to stabilize it against the movement that may result from the sea action. Such construction techniques tend to be more difficult, time consuming and relatively expensive. In contrast, the flexibility and ductility of PE allows it to adapt to un-leveled river and sea beds, and also to safely change or bend under the forces resulting from occasionally strong currents or other actions. For most marine installations, PE pipe needs are limited to having the tube sufficiently fastened to keep it in the intended location and to prevent it from floating. This results in easier and less expensive installations and, in a submerged piping system that is capable of delivering a very reliable and durable service. When choosing TKP pipes, many projects have been accomplished, which would not have been economically feasible with traditional pipe materials.

 

 

Float and sink method: Installation steps.

 

  In almost all underwater applications, the design and installation of PE pipes consists of the following basic steps:

 

  1. The selection of an appropriate pipe diameter.

  2. The selection of an appropriate SDR pipe (ie an adequate wall thickness) in the examination of the intended installation and use conditions

  3. Selection of the design, weight and frequency of separation of the ballast weights that will be used to sink and then hold the tube in its intended location

  4. Selection of an appropriate site for staging, joining and launching the pipeline

  5. Preparation of the land-water transition zone and, when necessary, the template under water

  6. Assembly of the individual lengths of the pipe in a continuous pipeline

  7. Assembly of ballast weights (This step can be done in conjunction with the next step).

  8. Join the pipe lingadas in the water

  9. Submersion of the pipe in the specified place

  10. Completion of the transition from land to water

DESIGN OF SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS

Installation of Air Pipes

 

Installation of Pipelines and Hydraulic Networks through Air Pipes

The horizontal pipes supported are affected by the weight of the pipe and its volume and the danger is that it hangs between supports. When the curve or deflection between supports is minimized, the tension in the wall of the pipe is controlled. That is why the supports must be spaced according to the diameter of the pipe, its RD and the weight of the fluid inside to limit the deflection using a simple analysis of continuous beams. The maximum recommended deflection between supports is one inch

 

 

 

Brackets must wedge the pipeline at least four inches or 1.5 times the pipe diameter, whichever is the less. A minimum of 120 ° circumference of the pipe should be supported. The supports must be free of sharp edges.

Often, supported pipes are installed in the field. These facilities are exposed to temperature changes due to weather. If possible, the pipe supported or suspended should be installed almost close to the temperature of the operation in practice or in the hottest climate.

 

 

 

When a supported system is hotter than its installation temperature, the pipe expands. As the length increases in the pipes, lateral deviation or meandering occurs between the fasteners, the total amount of expansion that will occur will depend on the length of the pipe and the increase in temperature with respect to the original temperature at the time of installation of the system.

 

DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC FACILITIES

Design by Gravity

Installation of Piping and Hydraulic Networks Through Gravity Design

Within a water supply system, it is called the line of conduction, to the set integrated by pipes, and control devices, which allow the transport of water -in adequate conditions of quality, quantity and pressure- from the source of supply, to the place where it will be distributed. The loss of pressure is the main consideration in the design of any pipe. Although there are innumerable sources of pressure loss along the pipes, these can be divided for study into major or friction losses and at minor or localized losses.

 

 

 

Water lines are calculated following several existing procedures. Its design in general consists of defining the diameter as a function of the load losses, from the expense to be conducted and the material of the pipe. Load losses are obtained by applying the equations of Darcy-Weisbach, Scobey, Manning or Hazen-Williams. Two operating conditions of the pipe can be presented, by pumping or gravity. But for the purposes of this document only the pressure given by gravity is analyzed, that is, by the difference in elevation. In the case of pipes subject to the pressure of gravity, two situations can arise:

a) Where the difference in height is barely enough to provide adequate pressure for operation, the problem is to conserve energy using large diameter tubes to have minimal friction load losses and avoid relief pumping.

 

 

 

b) When the difference in height between the source of supply and the location of the site to supply, is such that the pressure provided is greater than required, the problem lies in reducing the pressure gains, which is achieved by selecting diametric pipes More smalls.

 

 

 

Provide the bases for the design of the driving lines and establish the minimum safety requirements that must be covered, as well as the selection of the appropriate materials and control works for their management and the general guidelines for the installation in the water conduction lines .

 

 

 

The general data to be collected for the design of a line of conduction, are, among others, the location of the sources of supply and discharges, the climate, the means of communication to the place and uses of the water. For the design of a line of conduction a topographic plane is required, showing plants and elevations. For what it is necessary to define, through a selection of alternatives, the route on which the line will be drawn.

 

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC FACILITIES

Underground pipelines

 

Installation of Pipelines and Hydraulic Networks by means of Underground Design

National and international experience with buried PE pipe have shown that under correct installation conditions there are no crushing failures.

 

 

 

Rigid tube is defined as that which does not allow deformations greater than 0.1% of its diameter without fracture, semi-rigid tube that allows deformations between 0.1% and 3% without suffering fracture and flexible tube that allows deformations of more than 3% without fracture.

 

 

 

There are basically two types of external loads:

 

 

 

The dead loads caused by the effect of the weight of the earth on the pipe and the so-called live loads.

The external loads cause compressive forces in the cross section of the pipe, in the flexible pipes these forces are transmitted around the pipe, depending on:

 

 

 

Wall thickness, modulus of elasticity of the material of the tube, type of filling material.

 

 

 

As it is deformed, the pipe transfers the vertical load in radial horizontal reactions and is resisted by the passive pressure of the earth around the pipe.

 

 

 

The theory of external loads accepted by ASTM and AWWA is the theory developed by Spangler's for flexible pipes.

 

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC FACILITIES

Pipes On Floor

 

Installation of Pipelines and Hydraulic Networks by means of Floor Design

In above-ground applications PE pipe can be suspended or cradled in support structures or can simply be placed directly on the ground surface. This type of facility may be justified by any of several factors. It deals with the economic aspects of a temporary pipe system. Another is the ease of inspection and maintenance. Another one is simply that the local conditions and even the nature of the application itself may require that the pipe will be installed on the ground.

 

 

 

PE pipe provides unique joint integrity, hardness, flexibility and low weight. These factors combine to make their use practical for many "above ground" applications. This elastic material has been used for temporary water lines, various types of bypass lines, dredging lines, mine waste, and fines-disposal pipes. PE pipe is used to transport the mixture in many industries, such as those that work with kaolins and phosphates. The ease of installation and the exceptional toughness of PE pipe often make it practical for the collection of oil and gas. The economy and the continued successful completion of this single pipe material is evident despite the extreme weather conditions that can sometimes exist in some of these diverse applications.

This chapter presents the design criteria and predominant engineering methods that are used for the top-floor installation of the PE pipe. The effects of extreme temperatures, chemical exposure, ultraviolet radiation, and mechanical impact are discussed in detail. Engineering design methodology for both "in quality" and the installation of suspended or cradled PE pipes are presented and illustrated with examples of typical calculations. All the equations in the design methodology were obtained from published design references. These references are listed so that the designer can verify the applicability of the methodology for their particular project. Additional installation considerations are also discussed.

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

This chapter presents the design criteria and predominant engineering methods that are used for the top-floor installation of the PE pipe. The effects of extreme temperatures, chemical exposure, ultraviolet radiation, and mechanical impact are discussed in detail. Engineering design methodology for both "in quality" and the installation of suspended or cradled PE pipes are presented and illustrated with examples of typical calculations. All the equations in the design methodology were obtained from published design references. These references are listed so that the designer can verify the applicability of the methodology for their particular project. Additional installation considerations are also discussed.

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

WELDING METHODS

Electrofusion

 

Método de Soldadura de Plástico por medio de Electrofusión

Polyethylene (PE) pipes can be joined by thermal welding. The most commonly used welded joint systems are:

 

  • Electrofusion

  •  

  • Welding of Hot Air Supply

  •  

  • Extrusion Welding

  •  

  • Thermofusion to Top

WELDING METHODS

Welding of Hot Air Supply

 

Method of Welding of Plastic by means of Contribution by Hot Air

The welding is of the autogenous type, that is to say that the own material of the piece is used while material is added with a rod of contribution and heat, to recover the thickness and the body of the piece. During welding, both the piece and the filler rod will be heated. The formation of a small rebarba at the edges is a guarantee of a good union of the plastic. The welds can also be reinforced with metal mesh, this technique will give an extra reinforcement to the welded pieces. The finishing of the operation will be done using both a grinder, sander, drill, a scraper and manual sanding sheets to give the correct finish to the repaired parts.

WELDING METHODS

Extrusion Welding

 

Method of Welding of Plastic by means of Extrusion

The welding by extrusion is one that is made with input of material. This welding is done with an extruder machine. This machine is composed of a melting chamber, a preheating nozzle and a Teflon nozzle that will finally give the shape of the weld.

The filler material can be rod or granulate. This material is introduced into the extrusion chamber, there it is heated and through an endless screw it is pushed outwards. It is then when the operator supports the machine on the sheets that the welding is carried out while a flow of hot air preheats the welding zone.

 

The sheets to be welded previously must have been polished so that the welding has a perfect adhesion. In this type of welding, temperature and speed variables also appear, which can vary according to the sheet, ambient temperature, etc ... which are related to each other as welded by hot wedge. All the finishes, patches and special joints are made by this method.

WELDING METHODS

Thermofusion to Top

 

Pipe joining method by means of thermofusion

Polyethylene (PE) pipes can be joined by thermal welding. That is, prepare the two faces to join, remove the outer part and leave them flat facing each other, heat to a temperature of 220ºC for a set time by means of a flat-faced electric heater, then quickly remove the heater and joining the still hot surfaces to a certain pressure until the junction fulfills a cooling time, also predetermined.

The most commonly used thermofusion union systems are:

 

 

  • Butt joint, for tubes

  • Union to Socket: for tubes and connections of low diameter, female-male style, where the connection (elbow, tee, coupling, etc.) is female.

  • Silleta Union: where the thermofusion occurs on the spine of the tube.

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