Design by Gravity

Installation of Piping and Hydraulic Networks Through Gravity Design

Within a water supply system, it is called the line of conduction, to the set integrated by pipes, and control devices, which allow the transport of water -in adequate conditions of quality, quantity and pressure- from the source of supply, to the place where it will be distributed. The loss of pressure is the main consideration in the design of any pipe. Although there are innumerable sources of pressure loss along the pipes, these can be divided for study into major or friction losses and at minor or localized losses.

 

 

 

Water lines are calculated following several existing procedures. Its design in general consists of defining the diameter as a function of the load losses, from the expense to be conducted and the material of the pipe. Load losses are obtained by applying the equations of Darcy-Weisbach, Scobey, Manning or Hazen-Williams. Two operating conditions of the pipe can be presented, by pumping or gravity. But for the purposes of this document only the pressure given by gravity is analyzed, that is, by the difference in elevation. In the case of pipes subject to the pressure of gravity, two situations can arise:

a) Where the difference in height is barely enough to provide adequate pressure for operation, the problem is to conserve energy using large diameter tubes to have minimal friction load losses and avoid relief pumping.

b) When the difference in height between the source of supply and the location of the site to supply, is such that the pressure provided is greater than required, the problem lies in reducing the pressure gains, which is achieved by selecting diametric pipes More smalls.

 

 

 

Provide the bases for the design of the driving lines and establish the minimum safety requirements that must be covered, as well as the selection of the appropriate materials and control works for their management and the general guidelines for the installation in the water conduction lines .

 

 

 

The general data to be collected for the design of a line of conduction, are, among others, the location of the sources of supply and discharges, the climate, the means of communication to the place and uses of the water. For the design of a line of conduction a topographic plane is required, showing plants and elevations. For what it is necessary to define, through a selection of alternatives, the route on which the line will be drawn.

 

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

 

Underground pipelines

Installation of Pipelines and Hydraulic Networks by means of Underground Design

National and international experience with buried PE pipe have shown that under correct installation conditions there are no crushing failures.

 

 

 

Rigid tube is defined as that which does not allow deformations greater than 0.1% of its diameter without fracture, semi-rigid tube that allows deformations between 0.1% and 3% without suffering fracture and flexible tube that allows deformations of more than 3% without fracture.

 

 

 

There are basically two types of external loads:

 

 

 

The dead loads caused by the effect of the weight of the earth on the pipe and the so-called live loads.

The external loads cause compressive forces in the cross section of the pipe, in the flexible pipes these forces are transmitted around the pipe, depending on:

 

 

 

Wall thickness, modulus of elasticity of the material of the tube, type of filling material.

 

 

 

As it is deformed, the pipe transfers the vertical load in radial horizontal reactions and is resisted by the passive pressure of the earth around the pipe.

 

 

 

The theory of external loads accepted by ASTM and AWWA is the theory developed by Spangler's for flexible pipes.

 

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

 

Pipes On Floor

Installation of Pipelines and Hydraulic Networks by means of Floor Design

In above-ground applications PE pipe can be suspended or cradled in support structures or can simply be placed directly on the ground surface. This type of facility may be justified by any of several factors. It deals with the economic aspects of a temporary pipe system. Another is the ease of inspection and maintenance. Another one is simply that the local conditions and even the nature of the application itself may require that the pipe will be installed on the ground.

 

 

 

PE pipe provides unique joint integrity, hardness, flexibility and low weight. These factors combine to make their use practical for many "above ground" applications. This elastic material has been used for temporary water lines, various types of bypass lines, dredging lines, mine waste, and fines-disposal pipes. PE pipe is used to transport the mixture in many industries, such as those that work with kaolins and phosphates. The ease of installation and the exceptional toughness of PE pipe often make it practical for the collection of oil and gas. The economy and the continued successful completion of this single pipe material is evident despite the extreme weather conditions that can sometimes exist in some of these diverse applications.

This chapter presents the design criteria and predominant engineering methods that are used for the top-floor installation of the PE pipe. The effects of extreme temperatures, chemical exposure, ultraviolet radiation, and mechanical impact are discussed in detail. Engineering design methodology for both "in quality" and the installation of suspended or cradled PE pipes are presented and illustrated with examples of typical calculations. All the equations in the design methodology were obtained from published design references. These references are listed so that the designer can verify the applicability of the methodology for their particular project. Additional installation considerations are also discussed.

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

This chapter presents the design criteria and predominant engineering methods that are used for the top-floor installation of the PE pipe. The effects of extreme temperatures, chemical exposure, ultraviolet radiation, and mechanical impact are discussed in detail. Engineering design methodology for both "in quality" and the installation of suspended or cradled PE pipes are presented and illustrated with examples of typical calculations. All the equations in the design methodology were obtained from published design references. These references are listed so that the designer can verify the applicability of the methodology for their particular project. Additional installation considerations are also discussed.

 

 

We develop your projects integrally. Our engineering department is ready to support and advise you, leave our solution to your needs in the hands of our engineers.

 

LOCATION

9801 Westheimer Rd. Suite 302

Houston, TX 77042

Phone: +1 (713) 470 1192

Email:  info@tkp.mx

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